Atomic Clock Real TimeReal-time atomic clock
Timing & Frequence
Wineland and members of its lab group in a related research field have used laser-cooled ion to construct new ultra-precise atomic clocks, some of which have broken the global precision records. Today, laser-cooled watches are setting worldwide prime time and clock rate benchmarks. WWV (National Institute of Standard and Technology Radio Station) celebrates its 100th birthday in October 2019.
Thanks to the effort of Henry Warren, the creator of Telechron's electrical clock, the energy providers were a resource for time and energy references for..... The real-time clock synchronisation at feminosecond scale is demonstrated over a deep-seated, strongly tumultuous, 12 km long vertical airway with an optically two-way time.....
The way the United States made the world's most ridiculous atomic clock.
Drop that slow old atomic clock that's only a few ten millionths of a second out. In the USA, a new atomic clock has been launched that is three time more precise than existing one. Nuclear watches are in charge of time synchronization for much of our tecnology, which includes electrical networks, GPS, and the clock on your iPhone.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado, formally unveiled its latest atomic clock NIST-F2 timekeeping system, which has been in operation for more than a century, on April 3rd. "The NIST-F2 is precise to one second in 300 million years," said Thomas O'Brian, who manages NIST's Time and Frequencies Department, at a April 3 news briefing, recently endorsed by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures as the world's most precise time series.
They are based on high accuracy atomic clocks from the U.S. Naval Observatory (which complies with US Army Time Standards). Their smartphones do not show the time to the 16th place, but it is still based on the NIST clocks' measurement frequencies standard while they live in a strictly regulated laboratory area.
Real-time watches must function under demanding environments, such as variations in temperatures, strong vibrations or alternating magnetism, which affect their precision. It is therefore important that the ultimative benchmark should perform much better than the real one. As well as NIST-F2 as the default it supersedes, NIST-F1, are known as caesium-based atomic waterworks.
In other words, they measure the length of a second by taking a self-oscillation in a caesium nucleus. Inside the clock, a laser compresses a sphere of 10 million caesium atoms and cools it to zero (which contributes to reducing noise). It is thrown up in a 3 foot camera and passes through a waveform.
Some of the caesium nuclei are driven into a higher energetic state by the microwaves, which causes them to produce emitted ions. Caesium balls are thrown up and down several times and each time slightly change the wave length of the microwaves. Engineering people do this to look for a specific wave.
You know that you have found the right thing when the microwave sets most electrons in motion and produces the maximal amount of sunlight. It is then known as 9,192,631,770 Hz, a Caesium resonant frequency that in our contemporary universe determines the length of the second. Last time the atomic clock generations were quite good at finding the length of a second, but had some small errors.
At room temp., NIST-F1 warms the wall of the cavity in which the caesium atomic sphere is thrown and emits a small amount of radiant flux. That disturbs the atomic structure and leads to a slight change in their level of energies. The new watch achieves -316 Fahrenheit thanks to fluid Stickstoff refrigeration of NIST-F2, practically removing this surplus radiant power and 100 times the displacement.
Following continuous improvements since the invention of atomic clocks back in the fifties, scientists assume that the technological limits of precision have been reached. Every more accurate clock would begin to sense subtile phenomena caused by Einstein's theoretical explanation of gravity. Watches are experiencing a gravity warning of solid bodies. Earth, an extreme solid obstacle, causes watches nearer its top to run more slowly than those above it.
Caesium phenomena in water meters actually have a different effect on the time above in the 3-foot chambers than below. This small discrepancy would confuse an extreme precision instrument, making its time imprecise. "Not too far into the near term, we will end up re-defining the second," said Steve Jefferts, who headed the NIST development of the new atomic clock.
1967 a group of researchers gathered and identified one second as equal to the time it would take a caesium nucleus to move 9,192,631,770 x between two specific energies. In order to become more precise, engineering professionals need to find another way to naturally track time, and it "requires a whole range of individuals to agree that this is happening," said Johns.
If we achieve the capacity to divide time into minute, high-precision entities, what will we do? However, both O'Brian and Yefferts point out that the technology uses of today's atomic clocks were not obvious when they were invention. The timing of the future could also entail a whole range of new technology.
To learn more about and speculate about timing from the USNO, watch the great movie below hosted by The Atlantic a few month ago.