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It is a town in the far northeast of Nigeria, near the junction of the rivers Sokoto and Rima. Today Sokoto is the capitol of the Sokoto State (and its forerunner, the Northwestern State). Sokoto ( the modern/anglized form of the locally known name Sakkwato) is of Arabian origins and stands for the word well.
Also known as Sakkwato, Birnin Shaihu da Bello or "Sokoto, capital of Shaihu and Bello". Headquartered in the Sokoto Kalifat, the town is predominantly Moslem and an important place of Islam education in Nigeria. In practice, the Sultan who leads the Kalifat is the Spiritual Guide of Nigeria's Muslims.
Located in the arid Sahel, Sokoto is encircled by a sand savanna and lonely heights. Sokoto is one of the warmest towns in the whole word, with an averaging 28.3°C (82.9°F) a year, but the peak day is usually below 40°C (104.0°F) all year round, and the drought makes the summer tolerable.
Meadows of the Sokoto-Rima system, coverd with abundant flood plains, are the main artery of the area. Vegetationally Sokoto is falling into the area of the Savannah. Sokoto has two main tourist season, namely damp and sober. Sokoto Rima's huge fiadama country, the Sokoto Rima Rivers, cuts through the plains and offers abundant floodplain soils for a wide range of farming opportunities in the country.
Shehu Usmanu Dan Fodiyo used Sokoto as a place to meet Galadima, Yunfa's Wesir, as early as October 1804. Later it was used by Muhammad Bello as a stage for an assault on Dufua in the early 1806. Mr Bovil proposed that the area/district might have been known as Sokoto as early as the 17th c.
Historically, Sokoto was established in 1809 as Gibat (military encampment or border) when Shehu Usmanu was in Sifawa. After Shehu' re dead, it later became the capitol of the Chaliphate. Sokoto was at the height of his wealth in the eighteen-20s, which coincided with the height of his ruling power in the centre of the Califate and received tributes annually from all feudal families before a long spell of doom.
Discoverer Hugh Clapperton (1827) was very much taken with this wealth and its impact on the town. Mr Clapperton stressed the importance of the densely populated area of Sokoto: the river and not the long-distance commerce for the town' s economic life. However, the trading of Sokoto is currently insignificant due to the disrupted state of the area.
When the discoverer Heinrich Barth came in 1853, Sokoto was sparsely populated and heavily forfeited. In 1857, Barth put the populace at only 20,000-22,000, but the village was still serviced, and a flourishing outskirts outside the walls was more crowded than Sokoto himself. As Bovil rightly described it, Sokoto is a powerful location, with precipitous slopes from easterly to northwesterly and a small depression to the western and southwestern sides that protects it from surprising trooper aggression.
It is the hub of the streets of Gobir in the northern part, Kebbi in the southern part and Burmi Zamfara in the eastern part. At the beginning of the 19. cent. the city (Sokoto) was split into stations. In those days, the stations were small and enclosed by a mural, which comprised the Sultan Bello and Shehu memorials, the Sultan's palace and other structures, and the Shehu grounds.
Today the area of Sokoto was home to many realms and kings of the pre-colonial West Sudan. Among them are the Gobir and Kebbi Kingdom and the world-famous Kalifat, whose intellectual and cultural capitol is the state' s headquarter. After the British conquered the Kalifat in 1903, the various elements were autonomized and incorporated into the North Nigerian state.
Thus, the northerly area consisted mainly of parts of the Sokoto Kalifat and the Kanem-Bornu Empire. It became the head office of the north-western state founded in 1967. 1976, after the foundation of the Niger state from the northwestern state, the state of Sokoto with its head office arose. But in Sokoto, Kebbi and Zamfara in 1991 and 1996 states were worked out from Sokoto.
Since its foundation by Caliph Muhammad Bello in 1809, the city of Sokoto has been the capitol of various states. The state of Sokoto has a predicted 3.7 million inhabitants on the basis of a 2006 civil society count made up of two ethnical groups, Hausa and Fulani. The city of Sokoto, the capitol of the state of Sokoto, has a total of about 2.5 million inhabitants.
Housea peoples in the state consist of Gobirawa, Zamfarawa, Kabawa, Adarawa and Arawa. Fulani, on the other side, consist of two major groups: the city of Fulani (Hausa: Fulanin Gida; Fula: Ful?e Wuro) and the nomads. Among the first are the Torankawa, the clans of Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sullubawa and Zoramawa.
They are Muslims and the Islam religious gives them a behavioural bargain. More than eighty per cent (80%) of the population of Sokoto are engaged in one or another type of farming. In Sokoto, the economy was also dominated by handicrafts such as forging, weave, dying, carving and leatherwork, which made different areas such as Makera, Marina, Takalmawa and Majema important.
Also Sokoto is one of the pisciculture areas of the state. A large number of humans thus fished along the catchment area. The Sokoto is equipped with both physical and minerals as well. It is the second largest producer of animals in the country's well over eight million headage.
The Sokoto is missing a means of transportation. The transportation within the town ( if not on feet ) is mainly done with scooters, which act as one-person-axies. There is an intercontinental aerodrome 10 km north of Sokoto with frequent flights to Abuja, Kano and Lagos. A contract for the building of a concrete plant in Sokoto was concluded in August 2008.
Urbanisation has a very long tradition in Hausaland. It began when certain areas of the Hausaland region evolved from Kauyuka to Birane. One of the most important effects of the Dschihadist, however, was the acceleration of this phenomena not only in the Hausaland, but also in all areas affected by the Kalifatverwaltung.
On of the urbanisation issues in the evolution of the Sokoto Potash began with the foundation of the town of Sokoto (the Potash headquarters). However, with the triumph of Dschihad under the leadership of the Shehu Usmuau Dann Fodiyo (1804-1808) and the ensuing triumph of the Dschihadists over the Hausaland sovereigns, the town of Sokoto (Caliphate headquarters) was constructed by Mohammed Bello.
Moreover, as Abdul-Razaq Shehu stated in his novel Sakkwato Birnin Shehu), the town of Sokoto was already sketched on piece of art by Muhammad Bello before its construction. The Sheikh' s son Bello belonged to the lieutenant generals and commander s-of-war of his ancestor. Sokoto Birnin Shehu was the arquitect of the Sokoto Birnin family.
Sokoto, conceived by architects Muhammad Bello, had all the characteristics of a contemporary urban centre, streets, bridge, market, gates (fortifications around the centres ) and administration and trade centres. Some of the administration centres conceived by Muhammad Bello are Kanwuri, Binanchi, Galadanci, Alkalanci, Dogarawa and so on.
Besides the main square, commonly known as Yardole, there are other industrial areas such as Makera, Madinka, Marina, Siriddawa, Takalmawa, Runji and Jirgawa that have been created by Muhammad Bello. Moreover, no city in the Prejihad or Hausaland of the nineteenth centuries was able to become an urbane centre without efficient fortifications ("ganuwa").
Kofar Aliyu Jedo, Kofar Dundaye, Kofar brand, Kofar Rini, Kofar Kware and Kofar Taramniya, and this outstanding evolution drew many locals to move from their place to the ancient capital of Sokoto to survive. Observing from the above how the Californian Muhammad Bello sketched the town of Sokoto, we will see that Sokoto saw more immigrant with an interest in wrought iron, ceramics, etc...
Some of these individuals, for example, are involved in either forging or other related activities such as Makera Assada. In the past there were those who travelled to different parts of Nigeria and even to neighboring nations to buy ferrous material such as broken automobiles, trucks, trucks, airplanes, etc., broken tubes and crude oils, to be broken into small parts and sold to anyone who wants to use it or change it into another one.
The Sokoto State Government Dairy 2002, Ministry of Information, Young People, Sport and Cultural Affairs, Sokoto. U.H. Tsoho, growth and story of the founding of Makera Assada in Sokoto Metropolis until 2007/2008 B.A. Projekt, Department of Histories, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. Abubakar, S; Aspect of Urban Phenomenon, Sokoto and its Hinterlands, 1950.
"Sokoto." Jibril, J.H.; Philosophie unter den Sokoto-Wissenschaftlern, Benchmark Publisher, Kano Nigeria, 2004. Johston, H.A.S.; The Fulani Empire of Sokoto, London, 1968. Woman, Words and Islam in 19th Century Homealand and in the Sokoto Caliphate (Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann, 2007) (Social Story of Africa).